Survey on E-commerce Laws and Policies

Compiled by Sonny Zulhuda

17471ECMIn 2017, the World Economic Forum issued some reports relating to the recent development of e-commerce laws and policies. The report is entitled “Making Deals in Cyberspace: What’s the Problem?”

This White Paper aims to build the knowledge of current e-transaction and e-signature rules. It evaluates how these apply in national and international commercial contexts, and bridges perspectives from business, legal experts and trade policy-makers to deepen understanding on potential trade policy interventions that could boost regulatory coherence. The paper contributes to a World Economic Forum public-private dialogue series on best practices in e-commerce policy as part of a broader digital trade programme.

The Report can be found here.

Later in 2018, another report by the WEF also enlightens us on an emerging issue related to e-commerce law. Entitled “Addressing E-Payment Challenges in Global E-Commerce,” the WEF highlights that technology has altered the way consumers interact with payment systems. The Internet, digitization, shifting consumer preferences and, in some cases, regulatory reform have accelerated the uptake and use of electronic payments (e-payments). In turn, e-payments have contributed to the growth of e-commerce, making it practical and possible. However, while the digital world is theoretically borderless, national and regional boundaries have not gone away. Restrictions on the international supply, use and availability of e-payment services are among the challenges to global e-commerce.

This white paper informs discussion on e-payment challenges and solutions. It provides brief context on the e-payment ecosystem, the opportunities the sector presents for small business and financial inclusion and the payment-related hurdles faced by small players dealing digitally across borders. Given that trade frameworks can address international commercial frictions and support e-payment development, the paper enhances understanding of relevant efforts to date, and reflects on what else could be done.

Find this report here.

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Hoax in the Era of Industry 4.0

By: Sonny Zulhuda

We have those usual greeting lines every morning such as ‘How are you today?’ or ‘Have you had a breakfast?’

What about these lines: ‘Have you received any hoax today?’ Or worse.. ‘Have you spread any hoax today?’ …. 

7E3A8212Yes. Like it or not, hoax is now inseparable from our life. Just before I spoke in the Saturday ASEAN Youth Conference 2018 in IIUM on this topic, I received ‘news’ that Obike Malaysia stopped its business in Malaysia – which is not true!

The spreading of hoax, though existed since time immemorial, is now extremely rampant due to the advanced technology and the abundance of data around us. It seems that the bandwidth and connectivity was so good that data can even be sent before we think of sending it!

I called this as an excess of data inflation, which leads to information euphoria of a kind. Certainly we have ability of more data gathering, but somehow less on data intelligence. Owning and using a smart phone does not necessarily make us a smart person though.

With such a mishandling, information may become a disinformation, mal-information or even a misinformation. The convergence of information technology and big data have led to a “disrupted society”. A once connected and interconnected society is now “over-connected”, borrowing the phrase from William’s Davidow’s book “Overconnected”.

pacu-teknologi-manufaktur-kemenperin-bersinergi-dengan-startup-B0wBut, what makes sharing hoaxes is so appealing? Partisanship, Naivety, dramatisation, identity and self-actualisation can be the reason behind it.

  • Partisanship: sending hoax (despite the fakeness) conforms to the sender’s existing beliefs;
  • Identity: the act of sending such material proclaims one’s taste and affiliation;
  • Dramatisation: the fear factor that urges people to spread a hoax such as fear of life, fear of detachment, fear of sin, fear of social evils, fear of deseases, etc;
  • Naivety: deceived by all that glitters;
  • Self actualisation: such as the pride of one being the “most informed person”.

Unfortunately, no matter how good or genuine someone’s intention is, sending hoax is not cool. It can even land you on legal troubles. So, let’s not take it for granted. Something must be done. Everyone can be part of it.

It is worth-remembering that in 2005, the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) came up with this Declaration of Principles: Building the Information Society, which sets the philosophical and ethical foundations for the global users of the information technology, that:

  • The Information Society should respect peace and uphold the fundamental values of freedom, equality, solidarity, tolerance, shared responsibility, and respect for nature.
  • We acknowledge the importance of ethics for the Information Society, which should foster justice, and the dignity and worth of the human person. Emphasis on the role of family in society.
  • The use of ICTs and content creation should respect human rights and fundamental freedoms of others, including personal privacy, and the right to freedom of thought, conscience, and religion.
  • All actors in the Information Society should take appropriate actions and preventive measures, as determined by law, against abusive uses of ICTs.

I also took this opportunity to remind the audience of the Prophet Muhammad-guided information governance that has been taught as a legacy to us:

  • Info Dissemination: The prophet PBUH emphasised on accuracy and clarity
  • Info Gathering: He assigned specialist to gather espionage
  • Info Management: He appointed secretaries among the trusted and skilled companions
  • Info Confidentiality: He classified info on warfare, critical project e.g. Hijra, names of munafiqun
  • Respect to Privacy: He prohibited private surveillance
  • Info Authenticity: He used a special seal for correspondence
  • Info Verification: He always emphasised on the need of Tabayyun (i.e. verifying the source of information)

what to do when you suspect a fake news or hoax?

This chart from the Singapore’s National Library Board page may help.

FAKE chart

(Excerpt from my keynote: “IR 4.0 and the Inflation of Information: Issues and Challenges”)

#IR40 #Hoax #fakenews #control #information #AYC2018 #PPIMalaysia

The Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Inflation of Information: Issues and Challenges

From the event of the ASEAN YOUTH CONFERENCE (AYC) 2018, at the International Islamic University Malaysia, 22 September 2018.

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I will be delivering a keynote under the above topic. For my presentation SLIDES, please click: The Fourth Industrial Revolution and the Inflation of.

IR 4.0: A Note on ICT for Educators (in Indonesian)

By: Sonny Zulhuda

UIN Palembang

This was an excerpt of my keynote (in Indonesian) on IR 4.0: ICT UNTUK PARA PENDIDIK (Ethical Use of ICT for Educators and Teachers). Delivered in Universitas Islam Negeri (UIN) Raden Fatah, Palembang on 18th September 2018.

Kemajuan teknologi hari ini membawa kita kepada fenomena Revolusi Industri ke-4 dimana globalisasi, komputerisasi dan otomasi tersinergi dengan manusia, objek dan juga data. Keadaan ini menciptakan berbagai peluang disruptif di segala bidang dan profesi, termasuk proses pendidikan dan pengajaran.

Para pendidik dan guru tidak bisa duduk tenang. Ingat Tuan Stephen Elop ketika menutup tirai perusahaan Nokia dengan mata basah menyampaikan, “Kami di Nokia tidak melakukan kesalahan (dalam berbisnis), namun nyatanya, kami tersingkir.”

Kenapa begitu? Karena Nokia saat itu duduk tenang dan merasa semuanya baik-baik saja. Tanpa disadarinya, tampuk niaga sudah direbut oleh pemain-pemain baru seperti Samsung dan Siemen. Nokia ‘lengah’ dalam berinovasi, lalai untuk berkompetisi.

Dalam kesempatan keynote speech di Fakultas Tarbiyah, Prodi PGMI, UIN Raden Fatah Palembang, di depan 800-an calon guru masa depan, aku berpesan hal yang sama: mari kita lihat sekeliling.

Kenali anak didik kita, selami dunianya. Dekati permainannya, masuki media sosialnya. Manfaatkan teknologi informasi sebaik2nya. “Para guru dan pendidik tidak boleh lengah dalam berinovasi, atau lalai untuk berkompetisi!”

UIN Palembang2

Sitting alongside other keynote speakers: Dr Mardiah Astuti of UIN Palembang and Prof. Dr. Sabine Brombach from the Ostfalia University, Germany.

Palembang, 18 September 2018.

A Note on Writing Academic Publications

By Sonny Zulhuda

UMP Talk

Picture: Seated beside the Dean of Faculty of Law, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang, Ibu Dr. Sri Suatmiati, S.H, M.Hum.

This note is an excerpt from a public lecture I delivered in Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang on 17th September 2018, entitled in Indonesian: URGENSI JURNAL ILMIAH UNTUK PENINGKATAN SUMBER DAYA MANUSIA DI PERGURUAN TINGGI (The Urgency of Academic Publications for the Development of Human Capital in the Higher Learning Institutions)

Wahai para penghuni perguruan tinggi! Ingin tetap relevan dan tidak ditelan zaman? Menulislah dan publikasikan tulisanmu.

Karya ilmiah tidak berbeda dengan coretan di dinding Facebook: keduanya punya maksud dan menyampaikan maksudnya melalui kata-kata. Bedanya, yang pertama harus patuh pada norma metodologi dan logika. Adapun yang kedua, yah.. Tau sama tau aja 🙂

Di forum itu disampaikan bahwa publikasi ilmiahku saat ini ada lebih dari 60 paper. 15 diantaranya tercatat dalam buku Scopus. Ada yang bertanya, bagaimana memulainya?

Prasyarat utama bagi para akademisi kampus untuk bisa terus menerbitkan karya ilmiah adalah: “the inquisitive mind”. Yaitu fikiran kritis, yang senantiasa bertanya dan mempertanyakan demi mencari jawaban.

Untuk itu sangat penting adanya suplai informasi dan data, agar pertanyaan menjadi valid dan bukan mengulang apa yang telah ada. Suplai itu datang dari bacaan; baik teks maupun konteks. Buku, Internet, kedai kopi, jalanan, persekitaran bahkan pelarian sekawanan hewan bisa menjadi sumber informasi. Semakin banyak kita membaca, semakin banyak kita bertanya, dan semakin semangat kita berkarya.

Selebihnya adalah hal teknis: metodologi penulisan, gaya sitasi dan catatan kaki, serta tetek bengek editorial lainnya. Kuncinya adalah “D-E-E-E” yaitu “Draft, edit, edit and edit”.

Pesanku juga untuk para mahasiswa dan akademisi Fakultas Hukum Universitas Muhammadiyah Palembang, bersinergilah antara profesor, dosen senior, dosen junior dan juga para mahasiswa.

‘Jelek jelek begini’ (don’t take it literally), para mahasiswa lah yang merupakan gudang ide-ide menarik dan segar, walau kadang agak lucu dan sedikit vulgar. Intinya, mereka ini selalu berpikir disruptif.

“If you want to go fast, go alone. But if you want to go far, go together!”

Related news: from Klikampera.com

Privasi dan Integritas Teknologi

Dr Sonny Zulhuda

This article, in Indonesian, was published in the national daily REPUBLIKA, on 3rd April 2018. This piece highlights the ultimate need to have a privacy-embedded technologies. Respecting privacy is a prerequisite to maintain the integrity in the use of technology. As I concluded, the connectivity that we currently enjoy shall not eliminate the identity and integrity that shape who we are, as individuals and nation.

================

boss-spying-on-youBerbagai isu kebocoran data pribadi seperti yang baru-baru ini berlaku pada data registrasi nomor telpon seluler di Indonesia, dan juga pada data pengguna Facebook di Amerika Serikat (AS), membawa kita kepada pertanyaan yang lebih fundamental, yaitu hak privasi terhadap data. Apakah hak privasi itu sendiri?

Jarang didefinisikan, namun sering diperdebatkan. Misalnya, dalam menyikapi isu penyadapan komunikasi oleh penegak hukum di Indonesia, masyarakat kita berpolemik sejauh mana penyadapan bisa dilakukan, mengingat efeknya yang mengoyak kebebasan dalam berkomunikasi. UUD 1945 menjamin hak kita untuk berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan pemikiran atau pendapat. Jika komunikasi kita disadap, maka hak kita sudah disunat. Dalam konteks inilah Dewan Keamanan Nasional AS dikritik tajam ketika mantan pekerjanya Edward Snowden mengungkap praktik Badan itu dalam mengawasi komunikasi dan data pribadi pengguna Internet AS dan global.

Di Malaysia, pengadilan memvonis salah perbuatan memasang kamera CCTV di pekarangan rumah sendiri namun mengarahkannya ke halaman rumah orang lain karena mengganggu privasi tetangganya. Di Afganistan, orang dilarang memanjat genteng rumahnya sendiri sebelum memberitahukan tetangganya agar si jiran tidak terlihat dalam kondisi yang memalukan. Di Korea, kamera telpon seluler harus disetting dengan suara yang cukup nyaring sehingga orang tahu jika ia difoto di kawasan publik. Semua contoh diatas muaranya sama, yaitu melindungi privasi orang.

Kita tidak ingin teknologi modern yang nisbi menggerus sisi kemanusiaan yang universal dan hakiki. Teknologi informasi kita di negeri ini tidak boleh bebas nilai, dan tidak boleh pula miskin nilai. Koneksitas dan mobilitas yang semakin baik merupakan anugerah yang harus kita syukuri. Namun perlu diingat, koneksitas tidak dapat menghapus identitas, dan mobilitas tidak bisa meminggirkan integritas. Majulah TI di Indonesia.

Berasal dari bahasa Inggris, “privacy” berarti hak untuk bersendirian dan untuk tidak diawasi oleh orang lain. Padanannya dalam bahasa Arab adalah “huquq fardiyyah” (hak-hak pribadi) atau “huquq al-hurmah” (dignity atau maruah).

Dalam dialektika Alquran, Continue reading

Op-Ed Column: Privacy and Integrity (Republika)

republika2

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