Indonesia’s first cyberlaw officially signed, gazetted and numbered

This had came to my knowledge over a month ago, but could only wrote it here now. The Indonesia’s first cyberlaw has now been officially gazetted and designated a new number. The law shall now be known as (in Indonesian) UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK NO. 11 TAHUN 2008 TENTANG INFORMASI DAN TRANSAKSI ELEKTRONIK. The law is gazetted in ‘LEMBARAN NEGARA NO.58’ and ‘TAMBAHAN LEMBARAN NEGARA NO.4843. All these were done after the law was officially signed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia on 21 April 2008.

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Perihal Muatan yang Dilarang (Content Regulation)

Sonny Zulhuda: Under UU-ITE (the ‘Act’), several offences are provided mainly to ensure the creation of safe and trustworthy electronic environment that should protect consumers and finally help Indonesia’s e-commerce prosper. Other than the computer-related cybercrimes (such as hacking), there are offences laid down relating to the online content regulations. This aspect of the law has apparently stolen the limelight the first day when the Act was passed. Understandable enough due to the mounting pressures from public who wish to see actions from the Government, especially in handling online pornography in Indonesia.

To the drafters’ credit, the law identifies broad criteria of content which are offensive and prohibited. These include elements of indecency, gambling, insult, defamation, threat, extortion, fraud or misrepresentation prejudicial against consumers, hate speech, violence, and threats. The law also provides for penal punishment for each of these prohibited content. Does it mean Indonesia opts for a strict Internet censorship? Not necessary. I shall reserve my comment in different section(s) later in near future. For the provisions on this issue, here you go:

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Cybersquatting, HAKI dan Perlindungan Data Pribadi

Sonny Zulhuda: UU ITE does cover more than what its name implies. This e-commerce law (note the name ‘e-Transaction’ ) does not only cover contractual issues, but also others such as evidentiary aspects, content regulation, cyber-squatting, IP and personal data protection, and also range of cybercrimes, although some aspects are dealt with in more details than others. This is one reason why this Indonesia’s first cyberlaw is distinct from other e-transaction laws in major countries and that in the UNCITRAL model law. In this respect, India is notably having similar approach.

In the following excerpt, one can find that the law provides some ruling on the cybersquatting, domain names management, protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and the personal data protection. The last two issues are touched in very minimum provisions, likely due to different reasons. While it is quite clear that regulations on IPR is minimum due to the existence of specific existing laws, it is not yet clear as to the Parliament’s intention in prescribing very minimum provisions on personal data protection. One may argue that the law on data protection should be specifically drafted on its own in near future.

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Tentang Perikatan, Transaksi Elektronik dan Pertanggungjawaban

Sonny Zulhuda: Chapter Five of the Act adopts and applies the ‘functional equivalence’ principle on electronic contracts. The section’s objectives mainly to ensure the legality and enforceability of contracts in the electronic environment. This includes the provision on the choice of law and choice of forum, especially in the contracts that involve parties from different jurisdictions. Section 20 specifically deals with the issues of time of dispatch, hence the time in which contract is concluded. Meanwhile, section 21 is outstanding because it provides for a sharing of liability between the parties to transaction, agents and system provider. Here is the excerpt….

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Tentang Informasi, Dokumen dan Tandatangan Elektronik

Sonny Zulhuda: From the title of the Act (i.e. ‘UU-ITE’), one can tell that the law deals (primarily but not merely) on issues of electronic transactions. Like its counterparts in many other jurisdictions, the law has adopted major provisions of the model law on e-commerce issued by the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (a.k.a. UNCITRAL). The thrust of e-commerce law, as mirrored in the UNCITRAL model law and the Indonesian version, is the importance of recognizing a functional equivalence of many aspects of e-transaction to those in traditional contracts. For example, the law should redefine the meaning of ‘document’, ‘message’, ‘originality’, and ‘signature’. Likewise, the law should also eliminate legal doubt in relation to time and place of despatch/agreement, delivery, evidentiary value, communication and applicable law and courts for the transactions that are electronically executed.

On the issues above, we highlight what the Act has to say about the electronic information, electronic document and e-signature, and most importantly, their legality and admissability:
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[Petikan UU-ITE] Struktur Batang Tubuh UU-ITE

BAB I – KETENTUAN UMUM (Pasal 1-2)

BAB II – ASAS DAN TUJUAN (Pasal 3-4)

BAB III – INFORMASI, DOKUMEN, DAN TANDA TANGAN ELEKTRONIK (Pasal 5-12)

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Definisi Istilah dalam UU ITE

BAB I: KETENTUAN UMUM

Dalam Undang-Undang ini yang dimaksud dengan:

1. Informasi Elektronik adalah satu atau sekumpulan data elektronik, termasuk tetapi tidak terbatas pada tulisan, suara, gambar, peta, rancangan, foto, electronic data interchange (EDI), surat elektronik (electronic mail), telegram, teleks, telecopy atau sejenisnya, huruf, tanda, angka, Kode Akses, simbol, atau perforasi yang telah diolah yang memiliki arti atau dapat dipahami oleh orang yang mampu memahaminya.

2. Transaksi Elektronik adalah perbuatan hukum yang dilakukan dengan menggunakan Komputer, jaringan Komputer, dan/atau media elektronik lainnya.

3. Teknologi Informasi adalah suatu teknik untuk mengumpulkan, menyiapkan, menyimpan, memproses, mengumumkan, menganalisis, dan/atau menyebarkan informasi.

4. Dokumen Elektronik adalah setiap Informasi Elektronik yang dibuat, diteruskan, dikirimkan, diterima, atau disimpan dalam bentuk analog, digital, elektromagnetik, optikal, atau sejenisnya, yang dapat dilihat, ditampilkan, dan/atau didengar melalui Komputer atau Sistem Elektronik, termasuk tetapi tidak terbatas pada tulisan, suara, gambar, peta, rancangan, foto atau sejenisnya, huruf, tanda, angka, Kode Akses, simbol atau perforasi yang memiliki makna atau arti atau dapat dipahami oleh orang yang mampu memahaminya.

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