Kebebasan Berpendapat dalam Internet dan Perangkat Penanganannya

Oleh: Sonny Zulhuda

j0341636Pada bagian lain kita singgung tentang munculnya persinggungan antara masyarakat informasi dan etika yang hidup dalam masyarakat itu sendiri (lihat posting ‘Masyarakat Internet dan Etika Sosial’). Pada kenyataannya, masih sering terjadi dimana-mana gejolak dan perselisihan yang melibatkan pemuatan konten yang dianggap melecehkan, baik itu dilihat dari aspek sosial, agama, budaya, politik, dan lain-lain. Isu-isu seperti ini datang silih berganti. Apakah gejolak ini merupakan kutukan bagi masyarakat informasi?

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Masyarakat Internet dan Etika Sosial

Oleh: Sonny Zulhuda

Beberapa waktu lalu perhatian kita tertuju kepada haru biru Internet di Indonesia. Belum selesai pihak Kepolisian Republik Indonesia menangani kasus prostitusi dan perjudian via Internet, masyarakat dikejutkan dengan terbitnya sebuah komik elektronik berbahasa Indonesia yang menistakan Nabi Muhammad Saw dan menyakitkan hati umat Islam di negara berpenduduk Muslim terbanyak di dunia ini.

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Pertanggungjawaban Penyedia Jasa Internet (ISP) di bawah UU Pornografi

 By: Sonny Zulhuda

UU Pornografi melarang pemuatan dan penyebarluasan Pornografi di berbagai media termasuk Internet. Masalahnya, seringkali pembuat atau pemasok pornografi di Internet adalah anonim alias tidak bernama atau beridentitas.

Hal ini sangat dimungkinkan mengingat fasilitas Internet seperti situs, blog, atau email pada umumnya tersedia secara gratis dan tidak memerlukan identitas asli pendaftar. Sementara data mutakhir di Indonesia menunjukkan mayoritas pengguna Internet memakai fasilitas umum seperti warnet, atau fasilitas kantor atau sekolah yang tidak diatur sistem aksesnya. Keadaan ini bisa mengaburkan identifikasi orang yang memproduksi, memuat atau meyebarkan pornografi di Internet.

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Pengaturan Konten Internet: UU Pornografi vis a vis UU ITE

By: Sonny Zulhuda

Bangsa Indonesia sekali lagi mencatat peristiwa penting dengan lahirnya Undang-undang Pornografi (UUP) yang bertujuan menciptakan kepastian hukum atas penggunaan, penyediaan dan penyebaran produk dan jasa pornografi di tengah-tengah masyarakat Indonesia. Coretan kecil ini mencoba melihat beberapa tantangan implementasinya di ruang maya.

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Kaitan Pasal-pasal UU Pornografi terhadap Media Internet

Ketentuan Undang-undang Pornografi* yang terkait dengan media Internet dan perbuatan hukum pengguna Internet – Draft Matriks

Disusun oleh: Sonny Zulhuda

Media Internet merupakan salah satu obyek pengaturan UUP yang mencakup pasal-pasal pidana bagi siapa saja yang menyebarluaskan atau mengunduh pornografi melalui media informasi dan komunikasi itu.

Selain itu ada juga pasal-pasal yang terkait pencegahan, pembuktian dan pnyidikan. Pasal-pasal ini dilihat melengkapi peraturan perundangan yang sebelumnya juga baru disahkan oleh DPR pada bulan maret lalu, yaitu Undang-undang Informasi dan Transaksi Elektronik (UUITE).

Dengan adanya kepastian hukum ini, kita berharap citra negatif Internet dapat dipebaiki dan dengan demikian dapat menumbuhkan masyarakat informasi Indonesia yang kreatif, produktif dan beretika tinggi.

Lantas, sejauh mana keterkaitan pasal-pasal di UU Pornografi terhadap Media Internet? Ini bisa disimak di matriks yang tersusun dibawah. Dalam kolom keterangan, nantinya akan kita analisa lebih jauh implikasi dan penjelasannya.

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ICT and Law: Convergence is the way ahead

I recently read another encouraging development pertaining to the cyberlaw in Indonesia. The ICT Minister mentioned that the convergence of national laws relating to ICT is underway. He mentioned that the two acts on telecommunications and broadcast (UU Telekomunikasi & UU Penyiaran) are going to be merged and redrafted. This is very very positive development. While the technologies are becoming convergent, we don’t see why the law should address the issues separately. It is a major work for sure. But no matter how difficult, costly and complicated it is, the benefit is much bigger that that for the long run.

I’ll write more about the convergence of law in due course…

Indonesia’s first cyberlaw officially signed, gazetted and numbered

This had came to my knowledge over a month ago, but could only wrote it here now. The Indonesia’s first cyberlaw has now been officially gazetted and designated a new number. The law shall now be known as (in Indonesian) UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK NO. 11 TAHUN 2008 TENTANG INFORMASI DAN TRANSAKSI ELEKTRONIK. The law is gazetted in ‘LEMBARAN NEGARA NO.58’ and ‘TAMBAHAN LEMBARAN NEGARA NO.4843. All these were done after the law was officially signed by the President of the Republic of Indonesia on 21 April 2008.

[Petikan UU-ITE] Perihal Muatan yang Dilarang (Content Regulation)

Sonny Zulhuda: Under UU-ITE (the ‘Act’), several offences are provided mainly to ensure the creation of safe and trustworthy electronic environment that should protect consumers and finally help Indonesia’s e-commerce prosper. Other than the computer-related cybercrimes (such as hacking), there are offences laid down relating to the online content regulations. This aspect of the law has apparently stolen the limelight the first day when the Act was passed. Understandable enough due to the mounting pressures from public who wish to see actions from the Government, especially in handling online pornography in Indonesia.

To the drafters’ credit, the law identifies broad criteria of content which are offensive and prohibited. These include elements of indecency, gambling, insult, defamation, threat, extortion, fraud or misrepresentation prejudicial against consumers, hate speech, violence, and threats. The law also provides for penal punishment for each of these prohibited content. Does it mean Indonesia opts for a strict Internet censorship? Not necessary. I shall reserve my comment in different section(s) later in near future. For the provisions on this issue, here you go:

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Cybersquatting, HAKI dan Perlindungan Data Pribadi

Sonny Zulhuda: UU ITE does cover more than what its name implies. This e-commerce law (note the name ‘e-Transaction’ ) does not only cover contractual issues, but also others such as evidentiary aspects, content regulation, cyber-squatting, IP and personal data protection, and also range of cybercrimes, although some aspects are dealt with in more details than others. This is one reason why this Indonesia’s first cyberlaw is distinct from other e-transaction laws in major countries and that in the UNCITRAL model law. In this respect, India is notably having similar approach.

In the following excerpt, one can find that the law provides some ruling on the cybersquatting, domain names management, protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), and the personal data protection. The last two issues are touched in very minimum provisions, likely due to different reasons. While it is quite clear that regulations on IPR is minimum due to the existence of specific existing laws, it is not yet clear as to the Parliament’s intention in prescribing very minimum provisions on personal data protection. One may argue that the law on data protection should be specifically drafted on its own in near future.

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[Petikan UU-ITE] Tentang Perikatan, Transaksi Elektronik dan Pertanggungjawaban

Sonny Zulhuda: Chapter Five of the Act adopts and applies the ‘functional equivalence’ principle on electronic contracts. The section’s objectives mainly to ensure the legality and enforceability of contracts in the electronic environment. This includes the provision on the choice of law and choice of forum, especially in the contracts that involve parties from different jurisdictions. Section 20 specifically deals with the issues of time of dispatch, hence the time in which contract is concluded. Meanwhile, section 21 is outstanding because it provides for a sharing of liability between the parties to transaction, agents and system provider. Here is the excerpt….

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